This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License. Infertility is a common disorder affecting some one in seven couples, and subfertility has become a markedly increasing problem in affluent countries, with the most commonly identified cause attributed to 'male factor' 1 — 3. Several scientific studies have suggested that a decrease in male fertility is frequently associated with smoking, which may cause a decrease in semen quality 4. The inhalation of cigarette smoke leads to absorption of nicotine, carbon monoxide and heavy metals throughout the body, which can end up in the seminal plasma of smokers via various modes of diffusion and active transport 1 , 5 , 6. Reports have shown that there is a continuous and substantial number of cell divisions in the sperm cell differentiation and maturation process 7 — 9.
The Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Male Fertility
Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Numerous health effects of smoking are well-known; associations with semen quality are uncertain. Most previous studies did not adjust for potential confounders and had limited information on age at smoking initiation or smoking cessation. Relationships were examined using multivariable linear regression controlling for potential covariates.
Studies have repeatedly linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with reduced sperm counts in male offspring. Now a research team at Lund University in Sweden has discovered that, independently of nicotine exposure from the mother, men whose fathers smoked at the time of pregnancy had half as many sperm as those with non-smoking fathers. The study was conducted on Swedish men aged between 17 and